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ARNOLD ARBORETUM

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

ARNOLDIA

A continuation of the

Bulletin of Popular Information

VOLUME IX

1 949

PUBLISHED BY THE

ARNOLD ARBORETUM

JAMAICA PLAIN, MASSACHUSETTS

\J«lVio

R'VK®

INDEX TO VOLUME IX Illustrations are in bold face type

Acer campestre eompactum, 2 griseum, 2

platanoides columnare, 2 erectum, 2

4 4 rubrum columnare, 2

saccharum monumentale, 2 Albizzia julibrissin rosea, 2 Arctostaphyllos manzanita, 43 uva-ursi, 43

Arnold Arboretum, 9-12

Mulches, 9

Spraying equipment, 1 1 Azalea Border, The, 5-8

Plan of, insert, 6 Azalea, Torch, Plate II, .5 Barnes, M iss Mary P., 19 Batchelor, J. Milton, 56,63 Beach plum award, 52,63 Berberis koreana, 2

Cape Cod Beach Plum Growers Asso- ciation, 63

Carpinus betulus fastigiata, 2 Celastrus flagellaris, 2 Clarke, W. B., 24,26,27,28 Cyrilla racemiflora, 2 Cytisus praecox, 2

purpureus, 2 Dill, Fred F. , 63 Epigaea repens, 6 Forsythia intermedia primulina, 2 ovata, 2

Foster, William, 63 Graves, George, 64 Hall, George It. , 18 Hansen, Miss Anna, 63

Peter, 63

Huntington, Henry S. , 19 Ilex erenata convexa, 2 Jewett, James H., Bead) Plum Award, 52,63

Johnson, Vieno T. , Prize, 63 Kalopanax pictus, 2 Lilacs, 13-16

list of recommended, 14,15

Lil ac Path in the Arnold Arboretum, in color, insert, 1 4

explanatory note, 16 Liriodendron tulipifera fastigiatum, 2 Magnolia kobus, 1 1

2

loebneri, 11,12 stellata, 1 1

Malus baccata mandshurica, 2 dawsoniana, 2

Malus halliana spontanea, Plate III, 10

Malus pumila niedzwetskyana var.,

Plate VI, 37

Malus purpurea lemoinei, 4 “Bob White,” 2 “Gloriosa,” 2 “Katherine,” 2 14 Prince Georges,” 4 4 4 Red Silver,” 4

Meadow Road, new plantings along, 6,7

New Plants, Sources for, 1-4 Nurseries offering new plants, list of,

2

Parkman, Francis, 19 Parrotia persica, 4 Peters Hill, 37-44

[65]

Peters Hill, general plan of, 40,41 Philadelphia splendens, 4 “Atlas,” I Belle Etoile, 4 Philadelphus lemoinei ‘‘Belle Etoile,” Plate 1, opp. p. 2 Picea glehni, 42 rubens, 42 Pinus densiflora, 42 thunbergi, 42 Plum, Beach, 53-64

Arrowhead,” 58

Eastham,” 57

Hancock,” 56,57

“Premier,” 57

' Putnam, 58

“Raribank,” 58

1 Salford,” 57

Snow,” 58

“Wheeler Selection No. 6,” 57 Plum, Beach, Plate IX, p. 55

and Plate X, p. 61 Plum, Myrobalan, 62 Prinsepia sinensis, 4 uniflora, 4 Primus americana, 42 angustifolia, 62 davidiana, 4 hortulana, 62 incisa, 42

maritima, 53-64

“Arrowhead,” 58 Eastham,” 57 Hancock,” 56,57 “Premier,” 57 Putnam,” 58 “Raribank,” 58 “Salford,” 57 Snow,” 58 “Wheeler Selection

No. 6 , " 57

Prunus maritima, Plate X, p. 61

and Plate IX, p. 55 Prunus nigra, 42

i i

sargenti, 42 serotina, 42 serrulata, 42 tomentosa, 62 Quercus imbricaria, 4 Rhododendron Collection in Flower at the Base of Hemlock Hill, in color, insert, 32

Rhododendrons, Flower Colors of Hard.v Hybrid, 29-86 Rhododendrons, Growing from Seeds, 45—52

Rhododendron propagation, 45-52

Antibiotic substances, 48,50

Damping-off disease, 46,48

General culture, 51

Propagation chart, Table I, 49

Seed collection and storage, 45

Soil for seeds, 45

Sowing seeds, 50,51

Treatment of soil, 46,48 Rhododendron albrechti, Plate VII,

44

Rhododendron calendulaceum, 45,51

Rhododendron calendulaceum. Sow- ing Seed of, Plate VIII, opp. p. 46

Rhododendron catawbiense album, 31 ( 6

ca u ca s i c u m co r 1 a c e u m , 30

dauricum, 45 obtusum kaempferi, 45 schlippenbachi, 51 vaseyi, 51 watereri, 31 “Adelbert,” 33 “Alarich,” 33 “Albert,” 3 1 Album elegans,” 31 “Album grandiflo-

rum,” 81

Rhododendron “Anton,” 31 “Arno,” 32

Atrosanguineum, “Baroness Hen it Schroeder,” 30 Rhododendron “Bella,” 32 “Bicolor,” 3 4 Boule de Neige,” 30 “Candidissimum, 31 “Caractacus, 33 “Charles Bagiev,” 3.5 “Charles Dickens,”

35

“Daisy,” 33 “Daisy Rand,” 35 Delicatissimum, 31 Desiderius, 33 “Duke of York,” 32 “Echse,” 3 4 “Eva,” 8 4 1 Everestianum,” 34 “Fee,” 35

“Flushing,” 3-2

General Grant,” 33 “H. W. Sargent,” 35 H annah Felix,” 34 1 Henrietta Sargent,

33

“Ignatius Sargent,”

' 4 James Bateman,” 32 James Macintosh,”

32

34

Kettledrum, 33 Lady Armstrong,”

Lee's Purple,” 35 4 Melton,” 35 “Mrs. C. S. Sargent,”

“Mrs. Milner,” 34 “Norma,” 35

Rhododendron “Parson Gofe,” 34 “Pres. Lincoln,” 32 “Purpureum elegans”

35

“Purpureum grandi-

florum,” 35

Rhododendron Roseum elegans, 35 4 ‘Sultana, * 3 1 Snow, Mrs. Ina S., 57,63 Spiraea bumalda crispa, 4 Spring 1949, 9-12 Stewartia koreana, 4 Syringa persica laciniata, 4 pubescens, 4 vulgaris, 13,15 “Congo,” 13 Guinevere, 4 “Hiawatha,” 4 “Isabella,” 4

“Ludwig Spaeth,” 13 “Miranda,” 4

“Mrs. W. E. Marshall,” 13 “Rhum von Horstenstein,” 13

Tilia americana fastigiata, 4 Tomlinson, Bertram, 63 Tsuga diversifolia, 4 Ulmus carpinifolia sarniensis, 4 Viburnum dilatatum xanthocarpum, 4 opulus xanthocarpum, 4 Weigela “Othello,” 4 Wheeler, Wilfrid, 53,63 White, Mrs. Wilfrid O., 63 Wilson, E. H., 10,1 1,18 Wistar, Caspar, 18 Wisterias, the, 17-28

Culture of, 17,18

Flower colors of, 24-28

Fragrance of, 22

Identification of, 21,22

Introduction of, 18,19

Length of clusters, 23

[ 67 ]

Wisterias, Order of Bloom, 22

Twining of, 19,21

Wisteria floribunda, 18

alba, 24 carnea, 26 macrobotrvs, 26

Wisteria floribunda macrobotrys,

Plate V., opp. p. 24 and (Right), Plate IV, opp. p. 21 .

Wisteria floribunda macrostachya, 23 rosea, 19 violacea plena, 1 9 formosa, 1 8 frutescens, 18 macrostachya, 18 sinensis, 18

Wisteria sinensis, (Left), Plate IV, opp. p. 21

Wisteria sinensis alba, 24 venusta, 18

Wisteria venusta violacea, 28 ‘Beni-Fugi,” 26 “Geisha,” 27 “issai,” 17 “Jako,” 26 “Kuchi Beni,” 24 “Kyushaku,” 23 “Longissima,” 24 alba,” 24

“Mrs. McCullagh,” 27 “Murasaki Noda,” 27 “Naga Noda,” 27 “Rosecraft,” 19 “Royal Purple,” 27 “Russelliana,” 27 ‘Sekine’s Blue,” 27 “Shiro Noda,” 24 “Sierra Madre,” 28 Ushi Jima,” 27 Wohlert, A. E., 23,26

[08]

ILLUSTRATIONS

Philadelphus lemoinei “Belle Etoile,” Plate I, opp. p. 2.

Torch Azalea, Plate II, p. 5.

Ma/us halliana spontanea, Plate III, p. 10.

Wisteria sinensis (Left), and Wisteria floribunda macrobotrys (Right), Plate IV, opp. p. 2 1 .

Wisteria floribunda macrobotrys, Plate V, opp. p. 24.

Malus pumila niedzwetzkyana var. , Plate VI, p. 37.

Rhododendron albrechti, Plate VII, p. 44.

Sowing seed of Rhododendron calendulaceum, Plate VIII, opp. p. 40.

Beach PI urn, Plate IX, p. 55.

Prunus marilima, Plate X, p. 01.

[iii]

ARNOLDIA

LIBRARY NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

A continuation of the Bulletin of Popular Information of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University

Volume 9

APRIL 8, 1949

Number 1

SOURCES FOR A FEW NEW PLANTS

IT is one thing to talk and write in glowing terms of some new or unusual woody plant, but it is quite another thing for would-be owners of such plants to find sources for them among commercial nurserymen. Most nurserymen are continuously looking for something “new” with which to embellish their cata- logues, but all too often there are restrictions placed about such plant materials. The “new” plant must be easily propagated; the individual nurseryman would usually like to be the sole source for such a plant ; it must grow quickly and make a sizeable plant in a short time; it must be well known before he will propagate it on a large scale.

This last requirement is often the end of many a good plant before it even gets into commercial production, merely because it takes considerable time and money in advertising to create the proper demand. Many a commercial propagating es- tablishment is not equipped to take the risk. Articles and news releases from arboretums and botanical gardens frequently have all the information about such plants, but do not reach a sufficiently wide public to create the desired demand. Consequently, as a result, many a “new” plant quickly reverts to the category of being “rare,” and there it may stay indefinitely.

As a result of glancing through some recent nursery catalogues, I was surprised and pleased to find a number of plants listed which have been recommended in Arnoldia for years. Most of the plants on the following pages (but not all) have been introduced by the Arnold Arboretum, but the commercial nurseries should be given the credit for making them available to the gardening public. It would be impossible to list all the plants which have been so treated in the last ten years, but the following fifty plants have been repeatedly recommended in these pages and are being propagated and offered for sale by nurserymen this year.

Of course there are other plants, and other nurserymen offering these same plants as well. The following fifty plants did not appear in nursery catalogues

[1 ]

of ten years ago and have been repeatedly recommended in Arnoldia as being good plants for the garden. The twelve nurserymen listed should be given due credit for making these available. Apologies are offered to other nurserymen who may have been propagating these plants during the same period, but whose cata- logues have not been examined.

This list is being published merely to show that our efforts in trying to popu- larize new plants are not in vain, and that we appreciate the efforts of these commercial propagators and others who make such good plants available to the public.

Nurseries

1. Bobbink & Atkins, East Rutherford, New Jersey.

2. Cole Nursery Company, Painesville, Ohio.

3. Kelsey-Highlands Nursery, East Boxford, Massachusetts.

4. Kingsville Nurseries, Inc., Kingsville, Maryland.

.5. Henry Kohankie & Son, Painesville, Ohio.

6. Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa.

7. Littlefield-Wyman Nurseries, Abington, Massachusetts.

8. Siebenthaler Company, Catalpa Drive, Dayton, Ohio.

9. Tingle Nursery Company, Pittsville, Maryland.

10. Upton Nursery Company, 4838 Spokane Street, Detroit, Michigan.

11. Wayside Gardens, Inc., Mentor, Ohio.

12. Weston Nurseries, Inc., Weston, Massachusetts.

“New” Plants (available in 1949)

(The number refers to the nurseryman offering the plant.)

Acer campestre compactum 4 Acer griseum 4, 5 Acer platanoides columnare 8, 12 Acer platanoides erectum 7 Acer rubrum columnare 2, 4, 5 Acer saceharum monumentale 4, 5, 7 Albizzia julibrissin rosea 5, 9 Berberis koreana 5 Carpinus betulus fastigiata 5 Celastrus flagellaris 4 Cyrilla racemiflora 4 Cytisus praecox 2, 4, 12

Cytisus purpureus 4

Forsythia intermedia primulina 5, 9

Forsythia ovata 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12

Ilex crenata convexa 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12

Kalopanax pictus 5

Liriodendron tulipifera fastigiatum 5

Magnolia kobus borealis 5

Malus baccata mandshurica 5

Malus “Bob White” 12

Malus dawsoniana 9

Malus “Gloriosa” 4,9

Malus “Katherine” 4

[*2]

PLATE I

Philadelphia lemoinei “Belle Etoile”

Malus “Prince Georges” 4 Malus purpurea lemoinei 4, 5,9, 11 Malus “Red Silver” 4, 12 Parrotia persiea 4, 5 Philadelphus “Atlas” 4, 8, 1 1 Philadelphus “Belle Etoile” 4, 11 Philadelphus splendens 5 Prinsepia sinensis 4, 5 Prinsepia uniflora 4 Prunus davidiana 5 Quercus imbricaria 5 Spiraea bumalda crispa 1 1 Stewartia koreana 4 Syringa “Guinevere” 4

Syringa “Hiawatha” 6 Syringa “Isabella” 5 Syringa “Miranda” 6 Syringa persiea laciniata 4, 10 Syringa pubescens 4, 5 Tilia americana fastigiata 5 Tsuga diversifolia 4 Ulmus earpinifolia sarniensis 5 Viburnum dilatatum xanthocarpum 4, 5

Viburnum opulus xanthocarpum 4, 5,

8, 1 1

Weigela “Othello” 4, 11 Wisteria floribunda vars. 5, 1 1

Donald Wyman

Arnoldia subscriptions are now due. Those who have not yet sent in their 1949 subscriptions, please do so (price one dollar) and mail to Arnoldia, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain 30, Mass. Please make checks payable to Harvard University.

Field Class

A Field Class for the study of the more ornamental of the flowering trees and shrubs as they are growing in the Arnold Arboretum, will again be conducted during the Saturday mornings of May. Please write for further information.

[4]

ARNOLDIA

NEW YOE BOTANIC/ GARDEN

A continuation of the Bulletin of Popular Information of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University

Volume 9

APRIL 15, 1949

Number 2

PLATE II

Porch Azalea (Rhododendron obtusum kaempferi)

THE AZALEA BORDER

WORK has gone forward steadily in the last two years since suggestions were made in November, 1946, regarding possible changes in some of the landscape planting at the Arboretum. The bulk of the necessary drudgery of clearing up is now done, and new reconstruction work has been started.

Opposite the Administration Building the border close to the marsh has been cleared of overgrown colonies of shrubs of various unrelated sorts, and in their stead a plantation chosen chiefly from the Ericaceae is being assembled. The heaths belong to a beautiful family ; it is hard to think of a single member that has not some special distinction and elegance ; from the flat and fragrant mats of mayflower (Epigaea repens) to the tall rhododendrons and sourwoods. The position for this planting is ideal, as many of the heath family enjoy having their toes in or near water, and the gentle slope from the marsh level up to the road gives an excellent place to those which prefer drainage in addition to moisture. The tall species, such as the laurels and evergreen rhododendrons, will not be found in this plantation which is only the forerunner of a series of azalea groups. In order to give the plants the rooting medium and food they like, many loads of peat have been added to the border, and in the open and sunny spaces be- tween the punctuating trees new colonies have been set out, so that in the future, when the plantation reaches maturity, colours will harmonize and give interest from earliest spring to latest autumn.

Immediately inside the entrance the quiet open view over the marsh is main- tained by low ground-hugging shrubs like bearberry, low blueberry and paehi- stima, ending in a higher mass after the first vista has been enjoyed. The earliest of the deciduous rhododendrons, known formerly’ as azaleas, start the procession with rhododendrons, mucronulatum, dauricum and canadense. The crinkled petals of mucronulatum, when they’ first appear, look as though they’ had been ill packed during the winter in a small valise, but they7 soon lose their wrinkles in the sun and air and show their deep maroon brown dots at the centre of the tremulous wind-swept flowers. These early and somewhat difficult shades are kept together as they do not agree with the pink, orange and red sorts. The lavender species bloom early, and where they thrive, as they7 should in their new position, they’ are a heartening sight to ey’es seeking flower and colour after the long blank of winter. Some of the best of the old shrubs have been kept among the azaleas as dividing marks on what might otherwise be an overlong uninterrupted parade.

There are islands and tufts of Shadbush (Amelanchier) and later on clumps of Labrador tea and leatherleaf will be added among the huckleberries and tall growing blueberries. The pink azaleas begin with the earliest, the deceptively’ fragile looking Appalachian mountain Vase.vi, which is hardy in the far north and flowers generously7 each year if given proper food. After the Vasey’is have made their appearance the Sehlippenbaehs from China spread their large pearly

[6]

pink petals. This Chinaman lias taken kindly to our country and is never dull or dowdy. After the flowers wither the new buds appear tightly folded in their scales awaiting the next spring. During the summer the oak-like leaves are healthy and give character to the plant, and in the autumn they colour brilliantly from pinkish orange to deep maroon. After the Schlippenbachs come colonies of eastern American species, arborescens, with its deep red stamens lifting them- selves from the pale pink flowers, and viscosum, the latest and sweetest and tall- est of our native sorts. The nudiflorums and roseums follow, but bloom earlier than the viscosums. Enkianthus and good Phellodendrons make a definite break between the native pink species and their hybrids. Some of the older plantations of Sumach have been kept, and these are intended to act as a division between the American hybrids and the equally native Rhododendron ealendulaceum and their fellows in the orange scarlet and yellow shades.

The first years of this new plantation will not be as attractive as the later ones, since many older plants have been used which had to be neglected in the past. Some will look ungainly as they have been taken from crowded masses and this has meant hard pruning in order to give them a fresh start. As the marsh meadow border develops, further little tufts and wisps of the smaller Ericaceae will be tucked into the bays and hollows of the long line, and a walk next to the meadow will be made, so that the plants may be looked at from the marsh and from above on the level of the Meadow Road.

The work done would not have been possible without the enthusiastic and understanding help of all who are vitally concerned in the welfare of the Arnold Arboretum.

Beatrix Farrand

[7]

ARNOLDIA

liSUftR! "NEW ye B&CfifflCj GARDEN

A continuation of the Bulletin of Popular Information of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University

Volume 9 APRIL 29, 1949 Number 3

SPRING 1949

SPRING has come to the Arboretum this year a trifle earlier than usual. Un- usually warm weather started the forsythia blossoms into bloom a full two weeks earlier than they normally appear, but colder weather of mid-April slowed them up again so that at the time this is being written it is safe to say that the season is advanced by about one Aveek.

The Arboretum has not looked so clean for a long time. A trip through it at this time shows most plants in splendid condition. A comparatively mild winter, with not too much snow, did no damage to any of the plants. Heavy snow storms and high winds of late February and March failed to materialize so that no damage has been encountered on this score. Sometimes, a heavy wet snow or ice storm in March can create terrific damage which may take the entire Arboretum force weeks to clean up. Nothing like this has happened this year, so that it is possible to spend considerable time in some of the collections that are somewhat removed from the view of the general public, but nevertheless are important.

The mulching material (hops) which we have been using for the past few years is apparent now throughout all the collections, Its use has saved much money and time in weeding, and in fact, has actually prevented injury to some of the plants from fire. Some collections like the dwarf conifers received one application a few years ago and since that time the mulch has been worked into the soil. Now this collection is receiving its second application of the same mulch. No method has been found to prevent the potent odors of this material when it is newly applied, but this apparently lasts for a few short weeks only, and then disappears. In early spring it is not freshly applied to the most outstanding of the spring flowering collections, but rather kept on those collections in the hin- terland where it will not be too offensive.

The winter was a rather dry one, but fortunately early spring rains have been ample so that regular planting has gone along uninterrupted. Final touches are

[9]

T)

«r

n

PLATE III

Malus halliana spontanea. A rare Japanese crab apple which is unusually beautiful in flower. The flowers are pure white and the profuse, but small, fruits are dark red. The dense, somewhat vase-shaped form is unusual among crab apples. Unheralded and unsung, this has been growing in the Arnold Arboretum since 1919 when it was brought from Japan by E. H. Wilson. This is just another of countless plants growing in the Arnold Arboretum which have not received the attention they really merit. It should be in full bloom the first part of May.

[10]

about to be given to some of the trees on the far side of Peters Hill, these being the best of a miscellaneous planting which has not been given the attention it deserves.

A new mist blower (Bean’s “ilotomist”) was put in operation for the first time this spring. This necessitates the changing over of our rather complicated spray- ing-program from hydraulic methods to mist methods, causing considerable study on our part of the many new (and too often untried ) materials for insect and dis- ease control. However, we feel that mist-spraying is a technique which is very definitely going to be used more and more as new materials become available. In our case, the savings from the standpoint of labor are worth the change-over. We are willing, and in fact anxious, to do what we can in experimenting with this new method, and many new materials, if it is possible to obtain better control of insect and disease troubles, at a reduction of total application costs.

Magnolia loebneri. Among the many interesting plants which have bloomed in the Arboretum already this spring, perhaps none is so interesting as a Magnolia loebneri which is growing on former Arboretum property in Weston. This is a cross between M. stel/ata and M. kobus (originating before 1910). The tendency is too often to overlook some hybrid crosses after the flowers have been first observed. However, I have had an excellent opportunity of observing this hybrid planted at the Case Estates of the Arboretum several years ago. What is even more im- portant, it is growing within a stone's throw of some M. stellata seedlings which are almost as old.

The interesting thing is that this is one of the hybrids in which hybrid vigor has resulted in unusually good growth. The seedlings of M. stellata were planted in and are at present about three feet tall. Of nearly 100 plants only about one or two have flowers this season, about two to three each. This M. loebneri was grown from seed sown about 1939, two of the plants are twelve feet high (another is slightly smaller) and are covered with hundreds of flowers. The trees are pyramidal in habit, apparently are going to be tree-like and not shrub-like, and have a spread of about twelve feet. They have bloomed conspicuously for several years. E. H. Wilson used to say of M. kobus that it seldom bloomed pro- fusely, certainly not while it was young.

Here, then, is a hybrid which has been with us for some time, but the vigor of which has not been appreciated. The flowers are as large as those of M. stel- lata and have eight to twelve petals usually about eleven. The petals are twice the width of those of M. stellata, and shaped somewhat like those of M. kobus. The flowers are fragrant a rather important feature. The tree blooms at the same time as does M. stellata and M. kobus, but is meritorious for its vigor and profuse bloom. This early-flowering white magnolia of tree habit might well be propagated. Whether or not it will be as vigorous, or as floriferous when grafted on other understock, remains to be seen. Also it is important to state that since it -is a hybrid, there may be several clones, and it is inherent upon all plantsmen

to be certain to propagate from the better clones only. One of the clones in the Arboretum is decidedly inferior, having only six to eight petals. Another (dis- cussed above) grown from seed by the Arnold Arboretum, has eight to twelve petals, mostly eleven and so is a much more desirable clone to grow.

Donald Wyman

NOTES

Field Class. Once more the Field Class to study the flowering trees and shrubs of the Arnold Arboretum meets Saturday mornings throughout May. Meetings will be out-of-doors, beginning promptly at ten o’clock at the Forest Hills Gate. In case of rain the class will meet on the next fair week day. Instruction will be given informally in talks as the different plant groups are watched from week to week. No technical knowledge or special preparation is required.

The fee for the course is $1.00 payable in advance by mail, with members of the “Friends of the Arnold Arboretum” entitled to attend all classes without charge.

Applications and further inquiries may be addressed at once to Dr. Donald Wyman, at the Arboretum. Checks should be made payable to Harvard University.

Through the Arnold Arboretum. The first copies of our new forty -six page guide book to the Arnold Arboretum have just been received. This is an up-to- date description of the Arboretum as it is now, with much of interest concerning its past history. Well illustrated with fifteen half-tones and five full-color plates, this should make an excellent gift for any one who is not familiar with this world- famous garden. Included is an up-to-date map showing where all the main col- lections are at the present time, and valuable information concerning meritorious plants which the Arboretum has been responsible for introducing. This should make an excellent gift for an out-of-town friend, or a reference to have available for friends who might wish to visit this famous institution. Copies are available postpaid for fifty five cents (stamps accepted).

9,

Correction. The legend under the picture in the last issue of Arnoldia (Vol. No. 2) should read: “Torch Azalea ( Rhododendron obtusum kaempferi) .

NEW YORK

BOTANICAL

GARDEN

ARNOLDIA

A continuation of the Bulletin of Popular Information of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University

Volume 9 MAY 6, 1949 Number 4

LILACS

LILAC time has come to the Arnold Arboretum two weeks early this year. The vagaries of the weather have been such that the oriental crab apples and the lilacs have bloomed together for the first time in many years. In a recent trip through Philadelphia and Washington it was pointed out that in some sections the season is a full two weeks in advance and in others it is not, but everyone in the sections where it is advanced agrees that it has come very quickly and to man}' a commercial grower it has come considerably faster than expected. This has resulted in a financial loss to many a nurseryman, whose nursery stock has come into leaf sooner than anticipated and hence his planting season has been shortened.

In ARNOLDIA (Vol. 2, No. 6, April 24, 1942) was published a list of the 14 One Hundred Best Lilacs” of Syringa vulgaris varieties. Now, the following list is offered as being the best of all the lilacs, hybrids and species together at least of the hundreds which have been on trial in the collections of the Arnold Arboretum.

Not everyone will agree with this short list, particularly with the reduction in number of the S. vulgaris varieties. Others may look upon it aghast and remark that every lilac variety has a place in horticulture. However, this viewpoint is hard to accept, especially when one can cut a branch of opening flowers of 4 4 Mrs. W. E. Marshall,” 44Congo,” 4 4 Ludwig Spaeth” and 4<Rhum von Horstenstein, mix them up and then defy even the experts to distinguish one from the other. This can be done when the flowers are first opening, and brings up the point that many lilacs are similar certainly as far as their landscape qualifications are concerned.

The following list of lilacs is admittedly small many will consider it too small. It does include the best of the lilacs which have been growing in the Arboretum collection for a period of years. Merely because a lilac variety is not listed does

[ 13]

not mean t hat it is inferior. However, those included can be considered to be among the best landscape plants of all the 450 species and varieties being grown in the collection during the past few years. Some new and recently introduced varieties have not been growing a sufficiently long time to be judged properly. Those who have small gardens, and room for only a very few lilacs, would do well to make their selections from this list, rather than to become entangled with the lengthy lists of names in the larger collections of the country.

RECOMMENDED LILACS

Normal Time

Syria ga species a ad varieties

Height

of Bloom

Color

amurensis japonica

30'

mid-June

creamy white

chinensis

1 5 '

late May

purple-lilac

alba

1 5'

late May

white

6 6

saugeana

1 o'

late May

lilac-red

henryi “Lutece”

10'

early June

pale violet and pink

henryi X tomentella 1 4 Prairial

9'

early June

fuschia purple

josifiexa “Enid”

9'

6 6 6 6

cyclamen purple

4 < 4 4 T i-i. 9 9

Lynette

9'

6 6 6 6

rhodamine pink

josikaea

12'

6 6 6 6

lilac violet

laciniata

6'

late May

pale lilac

microphylla

6'

6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6

nanceana “Floreal”

9'

early June

petunia purple

oblata dilatata

12'

early May

pinkish

oblata dilatata X vulgaris

“Assessippi”

1 2'

6 6 6 6

pinkish mauve

6 6 66 66 66

4 4 Pocahontas” 12'

6 6 6 6

reddish purple

oblata giraldiX vulgaris

“Catinat”

12'

6 6 6 6

pinkish

4 4 44 44 44

Lamartine”

12'

6 6 4 6

6 6

44 44 44 44

“Louvois”

12'

6 6 6 6

violet

44 44 44 44

“Necker”

12'

6 6 6 6

pinkish

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

“Turgot”

12'

6 6 6 6

4 4

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

“Villars”

12'

6 6 6 6

lilac

persiea

6'

late May

pale lilac

prestoniae

9'

mid-June

pink to deep pink

“Ariel”

9'

6 6 6 6

petunia purple

“Coral”

9'

6 6 6 6

rhodamine pink

“Dawn”

9'

6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6

“Hecla”

9'

6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6

“Hiawatha”

9'

6 6 6 6

6 6 4 6

“Isabella”

9'

6 6 6 6

fuschia purple

“Miranda”

9'

6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6

“Nerissa”

9'

6 6 6 6

cyclamen purple

“Romeo”

9'

6 6 6 6

rhodamine pink

The famous Lilac Path in the Arnold Arboretum around which is clustered one of the world’s most

complete collections.

20'

20'

prestoniae “Ursulla” swegiflexa svveginzowi villosa vulgaris

alba

“Vestale” - single “Mont Blanc” single “Jan Van Tol” - single “M arie Finon” - single

“Edith Cavell” - double “Ellen Willmott” double “De Miribel” - single “Cavour” single “Marechal Lannes” double “Violetta” double “President Lincoln” - single “Decaisne” - single “Maurice Barres” single “Olivier de Serres” double “Emile Gentil” - double “Due de Massa” double “Marengo” - single “Jacques Callot” - single “President Fallieres” - double “Henri Martin” - double “Victor Lemoine” double “Leon Gambetta” - double “Lucie Baltet” - single “Macrostachya” single “Mme. Antoine Buchner” double “Katherine Havemeyer” - double “Montaigne” - double “Marechal Foch” single “Mme. F. Morel” single “Capitaine Baltet” - single “Paul Thirion” double “Paul Desehanel” - double “Mrs. Edward Harding” - double “Monge” - single “Mrs. W. E. Marshall” single “Ludwig Spaeth” - single

9' mid-June 9' early June 9' earlvJune 9/

mid -May

fuschia purple rhodamine pink reddish lilac rosy lilac to white lilac white

violet

blue and bluish

lilac

pink and pinkish

magenta

purple (or deep purple)

[15]

In going through this list of species and hybrids, it is noted that the time of bloom varies from early May to mid-June, nearly six weeks. This is important in making selections for the small garden. Also the height varies, the lowest being *S\ microphylla and A. persica -about six feet tall and the highest being the tree lilac, A. amurensis japonica about thirty feet tall. The range here is most useful in helping the gardner select the right lilac for the right place.

Donald Wyman

NOTE

The Lilac Path in Color

ARNOLDIA subscribers and friends of the Arboretum have known that pic- tures in full color have been taken as a matter of course since 1936. All color films have been used, some with better success than others. The collection of color transparencies on file in the Arboretum now numbers well into the thou- sands. Many of these are used in lectures by staff members, many are for record purposes in noting differences among the horticultural varieties.

The new guide book, tlThrough the Arnold Arboretum/’ contains five color prints made from selected transparencies. It is obvious that color reproduction (i.e. printing on paper) has not kept advancing as rapidly as color photography; yet even with its limitations, some color pictures tell a better story than do black and white pictures. Some do not! However, ARNOLDIA readers will receive these first few color reproductions from time-to-time so that they, too, may have reminders of the glorious color displays made by the plants that grow in the Arnold Arboretum.

[1G]

p

I

ARNOLDIA

A continuation of the Bulletin of Popular Information of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University

. 'T-U.RY

YORK .\IGAL . .DEN

Volume 9 JUNE 10, 1949 Numbers 5-6

THE WISTERIAS*

THE Arnold Arboretum wisteria collection now contains some 35 species and varieties, not all that are being grown in this country today, but certainly a goodly representation. These lovely twining vines are widely used as ornamentals in the gardens of this country, and those who have travelled in Japan will long remember the striking specimens as they are grown there. They are without doubt among the best of our ornamental vines. Many gardeners have found them easy to grow, still others most difficult, but all will agree they are outstanding when in bloom during late spring. In this issue of ARNOLDIA, some of the in- teresting points about the varieties will be noted, as they have been observed growing in the Arboretum collection during the past ten years.

However, it must be admitted at the beginning, that except for standard rec- ommendations, there are no magical ways of making certain vines bloom. Many articles have been written dealing with the culture of these vines, and it is not the object here to enter into a minute discussion of this topic. Suffice it to say, that all vines should bloom, some just won’t at least it may take them ten to fifteen years to produce their first flowers. It is inadvisable to grow plants from seed. They had best be propagated asexually from plants known to flower early. Grafted plants of one variety, Wisteria Assai,” are known to flower when very young, often at three years. This has happened with a vine here, but all too fre- quently valued specimens of other varieties do not bloom for a long time. Then the standard recommendations are to root prune, to prune the vigorous growing young shoots, and sometimes to give a feeding of superphosphate. These things have been known to help plants bloom, but sometimes even these do not seem to help. Experiments have been started at the Arboretum which may throw some light on the best procedure, but until these have had sufficient time to produce

* Spelling follows that of Alfred ltehder in his ‘"Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs" and Liberty Hyde Bailey in his ‘‘Hortus Second."

[ W ]

results, the old standard recommendations of top and root pruning, and feeding with superphosphate are best to follow.

There is even a controversy on which soils seem best that is in aiding flower production. Planted in a light sandy soil, the plants may grow less vigorously, but tend to produce flowers sooner than when grown in a rich soil where vege- tative growth is pronounced. However, E. H. Wilson, who studied this group thoroughly in Japan, made the observation that the larger, better flowering vines were those frequently planted by ponds where they had an unlimited water supply.

Introduction

There are about nine species of wisterias in North America and eastern Asia, six of which are growing in the Arnold Arboretum. Of these, three are natives of eastern Asia, two of the eastern United States, and one- the hybrid species W.formosa is a cross between W. sinensis and W. floribunda. The Chinese ( W. sinensis) and Japanese ( W. floribunda ) wisterias, have far outstripped the others in popular acclaim, at least in northern gardens, because of their profuse bloom, their large flower clusters and their varieties of varying colors and fragrance. Varieties are available with flower clusters from 6" to 48" in length, pink, white or varying shades of lilac, single or double flowers, some of which are very fra- grant. The double-flowered varieties make poor ornamentals because their bloom is erratic and the double flowers quickly decay in wet weather. Wisteria flrutescens, native on the east coast from Virginia to Florida and Texas, is not a strong vine and has not bloomed with us in recent years. Wisteria macrostachya is perfectly hardy, but blooms late, after the leaves are developed so that blooms are con- siderably hidden by the foliage. Wisteria venusta has poor flowers when compared with its two Asiatic relatives. Wisteria flormosa might be considered even a better ornamental than W. sinensis because it is deliciously fragrant.

The longest flower cluster I have measured in the collection at the Arboretum was one 36" long, but E. H. Wilson has measured them up to 64" long on well- grown specimens in Japan. Soil, moisture, and general culture all enter into the picture as far as length